Practice diagnosing and treating Rubella

2021-03-25 12:00 AM

Virus carriers can spread the disease to many people by introducing the virus into the air

Rubella, or rubeon, was often referred to as a form of measles so it is still known as German measles, a mildly contagious disease that can cause erythema and swelling of the lymph nodes. . The disease most often appears at the age of 6-12 years old. However, it can be found at any age. About a quarter of all infections do not have erythema, and the disease that resolves on its own is virtually unrecognized, although blood test results may indicate infection. It is very rare to see this disease appear in the age group over 40.

Although it is a mild illness and rarely has serious complications, rubella is especially dangerous for pregnant women. When infected in the first 4 months of pregnancy, the developing fetus is at increased risk of serious harm, possible various malformations, and the postnatal mortality rate of up to about 20. %. If caught very soon after becoming pregnant, there is a high risk of miscarriage.

In the past, rubella was a fairly common disease, but thanks to extensive vaccination, the number of cases is decreasing very rapidly.

Reason

It is caused by a virus strain called Rubivirus.

Virus carriers can spread the disease to many people by introducing the virus into the air. Viruses exist in the air in the form of tiny suspended particles and infect anyone who comes into contact.

The mother who carries the virus also transmits it to her baby.

The incubation period is usually 2-3 weeks, but the most common is about 17-18 days.

Diagnose

The incubation period is usually asymptomatic.

When the disease does start, some of the following symptoms usually appear:

Low-grade fever.

Swollen lymph nodes in the back of the neck and behind the ears, and in some cases large swollen lymph nodes throughout the body, including in the armpits and under the groin.

A non-itchy erythematous area appears around day 2 or 3, usually starting in the face of the face, spreading to the body and limbs. This rash usually goes away after about 3 days.

In more rare cases, there may be a high fever, headache before the rash is present.

Some children may experience pain in their joints.

In most cases, the symptoms go away and the disease goes away quickly, leaving no sequelae. An occasional complication is polyarthritis, which usually appears after the rash has gone.

For pregnant women who have the disease during the first 4 months of pregnancy, the disease becomes extremely dangerous with the following risks:

Miscarriage, usually occurs soon after pregnancy.

The fetus will have one or more birth defects such as deafness, heart disease, dullness, purpura, cerebral palsy, bone deformity, cataracts and several other eye diseases. Babies born with a mortality rate of about 20% from a very young age. The surviving children continue to carry the virus that causes the illness, more likely to infect others.

Treatment

There is no specific drug. Mainly still is prevention and treatment by monitoring and controlling symptoms.

The symptoms of the disease are quite faint, so it is important to pay attention to differentiate them from many other diseases with similar symptoms.

A definitive diagnosis when necessary is made by dissociating the virus from the swab swab or by testing for antiviral antibodies in the blood.

Immunizations

The rubella vaccine, given at 9 to 15 months of age, is now often combined with the measles and mumps vaccine, called the MMR (MMR = measles + mumps + rubella) vaccine. Each of these diseases has its own vaccine, but the combination in one dose of MMR makes it easier to get vaccinated, as it can protect children from 3 important infectious diseases simultaneously. If, for some reason, a child is not vaccinated on schedule between 9 and 15 months of age, it is imperative that the child receive MMR before school age, that is, under 5 years of age.

Although it was a very common disease in the past, thanks to the vaccine, the number of cases in the United States each year has dropped from many thousands to less than 360.

Rubella needs special attention for all pregnant women, due to the dangerous nature of the disease to the fetus. All pregnant women should be screened for immunity against the disease, and if not previously vaccinated, immunoglobulin should be given immediately.

Pregnant women should also pay attention to minimize contact with people with rubella disease. If you are a woman who has not been vaccinated, you should see a doctor immediately after contact with the patient. It is now possible to create passive immunity under necessary circumstances with an injection of immunoglobulins, usually to provide prompt protection of the fetus.

The vaccine is effective for at least 3 days after the shot is given. Therefore, it is not safe to have immediate contact with an infected person right after vaccination. Take care not to give the vaccine to pregnant women, and women after vaccination should be warned not to become pregnant for 1 month thereafter.

The vaccine can cause some side effects, but is generally safe. Possible symptoms after getting the vaccine are:

About 1 week after injection: malaise, mild fever, rash. Seizure fever can be present at this time in rates as low as one in a thousand.

Approximately 3 weeks after an injection: Swollen parotid glands, may occur at a rate of about 1%.

Encephalitis is possible with as much as one in 300,000 vaccinations.