Practice diagnosis and treatment of measles

2021-03-25 12:00 AM

Children under 8 months of age rarely get measles, thanks to the antibodies received from breast milk. Therefore, breastfeeding is also a way to protect children against this disease.

Measles is a common infectious disease mainly in children, causing typhus fever and many associated symptoms as well as a number of dangerous complications, especially complications of encephalitis, which can be fatal.

In the past, measles was a threat to children all over the world. Because of its easy-to-spread, fast-spreading nature, it could break out in a very short time. Today, the development of vaccines has repelled the disease. However, in the least developed countries, millions of children still die each year from the disease.

Reason

Measles is caused by infection with a virus that causes illness.

There are many causes of infection, as the disease is easily transmitted through the air as well as through many different forms of contact with carriers of the virus.

The incubation period lasts up to about 14 days.

During this time, the child carries a virus that can send the virus into the air and infect everyone around.

People who have had measles once, after being cured, will have lifelong natural immunity to the disease. The vaccine can also provide immunity with a success rate of about 97% of immunizations.

Children under 8 months of age rarely get measles, thanks to the antibodies received from breast milk. Therefore, breastfeeding is also a way to protect children against this disease.

Diagnose

Symptom’s onset

Fever.

Tired.

Swollen lymph nodes.

Runny nose.

Red eyes.

Ho.

Symptoms when the disease is full

The erythema on the skin, which can be itchy, always appears in order from top to bottom, from the skin on the face, the back of the head and neck, and spreads down the body.

Itchy eyes, especially when seeing light.

Sneezing and runny nose.

About 3 days after the rash begins to subside, the symptoms gradually subside.

However, a number of complications can appear

Inflammation of the upper respiratory tract or infectious middle ear infections, with clear signs that the fever returns after the rash has subsided, possibly accompanied by diarrhoea, vomiting, abdominal pain ... Fever can be very high, causing contraction jerk.

Encephalitis, typically 7-10 days after the rash appears, includes headache, vomiting, convulsions, and coma. This complication is very rare (with a rate of about a million cases) but very dangerous, can lead to death.

Large-cell pneumonia.

Purulent conjunctivitis.

Treatment

There is no cure, so the main treatment is to deal with the symptoms.

The patient needs to rest more in bed, drink plenty of fluids. Antipyretic pain relievers, such as aspirin, acetaminophen or paracetamol, can be used to relieve the symptoms. Syrups can also be used to relieve coughs, skin creams to relieve itching ... depending on the severity of these symptoms.

Need to isolate the patient, limit all exposure since the discovery and suspicion of this disease. This is to limit the spread of the disease.

Antibiotics are ineffective against viruses that cause disease, so they should only be used when there is a sign of secondary infection.

Immunoglobulin (immunoglobulin) may be required in patients with impaired or impaired immune systems.

Immunizations

Measles vaccination is done at 9 to 15 months of age. The success rate is up to about 97% of vaccinations. Therefore, the invention and use of a vaccine (since 1963) have clearly pushed back this dangerous disease in children around the world. In the United States alone, the annual number of cases in the early 1960s was about 500,000, having dropped to less than 3,500 by 1988. By 1999, the number of reported cases in the year was just not coming. 100.

However, due to the difficult economic conditions and inadequate understanding of the disease, many children in the least developed countries are still not fully immunized. The World Health Organization (WHO) notes that today about 1 million children die from this disease each year.

Measles vaccination for children is the simplest and most effective way to protect children against this dangerous infectious disease, and it is also the responsibility of parents to help prevent the spread of the disease. in the whole society.