Practice diagnosis and treatment of mumps

2021-03-25 12:00 AM

During 1 week before symptoms start to up to 2 weeks after symptoms appear, the sick person can infect those who come into contact with them.

Mumps is an acute infectious disease that usually occurs mainly in children. The age at greatest risk is usually 5 - 9 years old. However, the disease can still occur at any age.

Because of its easy and rapid spread, mumps can explode into large epidemics that seriously threaten the health of many people, especially in schools where children are frequently in contact. From around 1967, the mumps vaccine was invented and widely used, helping to reverse this risk.

Reason

Mumps is caused by a virus that primarily attacks the lymphoid and nerve tissue.

The virus causes a lot in the saliva of infected people. From there, the patient is brought into the air when speaking, coughing or spitting ... The virus is floating in the air and infects others.

The incubation period lasts about 15 - 21 days.

During 1 week before symptoms start to up to 2 weeks after symptoms appear, the sick person can infect those who come into contact with them.

People who have had mumps once, after being cured, will have lifelong natural immunity to the disease, since there is only one strain of the virus causing the disease. The mumps vaccine currently being used is very effective and completely safe.

Diagnose

Onset symptoms are usually very mild

Low-grade fever, lasting for 2-3 days.

Feeling tired.

Anorexia, not delicious.

Dry mouth.

Symptoms of the onset of the disease

It is characterized by swelling of the parotid glands (the salivary glands located at the corner of the jawbone, just below and in front of the ear), which may be on one side or both sides. Swollen parotid glands make the jaw impossible to palpate, which helps to distinguish from lymph node disease in the neck or lower jaw. Swollen parotid glands usually last for 7-10 days.

The parotid glands may experience painful swelling at the same time, but may also be only one of the glands. In one gland swelling, when one gland falls, the other will begin to swell.

The general symptoms are fever, headache, difficulty chewing, and anorexia. All symptoms usually go away after about 12 days.

Confirmed diagnosis sometimes requires testing for antibodies to the virus in the blood of a patient, culture of saliva or urine.

Mumps can cause complications

Acute lymphocytic meningitis.

Testicular inflammation, which occurs in about a quarter of all male cases after puberty. When testicular inflammation occurs, one or both testicles swell and pain within 2 - 4 days and then collapse. In a fairly rare proportion, testicular inflammation can lead to infertility.

Abdominal pain, often caused by pancreatitis or ovarian inflammation.

Viruses attack the auditory nerve and can cause deafness, but this complication is very rare.

Treatment

There is no specific treatment, so symptom control is essential.

Give the sick person bed rest and drink plenty of fluids. Limit your exposure to avoid spreading.

Common pain relievers and antipyretics such as aspirin, acetaminophen or paracetamol to ease the symptoms.

With testicular inflammation, can be effectively treated with prednisolone 40mg, once a day, continuously for 4 days.

When meningitis is suspected, the patient should be referred immediately to hospital treatment, even if the treatment is not much different, because the patient needs a spinal puncture soon (cerebral effusion procedure). marrow) to immediately determine whether or not the bacteria cause meningitis.

Immunizations

The mumps vaccination is usually done at the same time as the measles vaccine, when the child is 9 to 15 months old, and should not be older than 4 years at the latest. The mumps vaccine was officially used in the United States since 1967. Before that, in 1964, there were about 212,000 cases of mumps in this country. After using the vaccine, by 1999 the total number of mumps cases was less than 400.

Immunization is the easiest way to fight mumps. The drug is completely safe and effective, can create lifelong immunity for the child.