Sexual acts with children are also very different. Some people just look at them without touching them. Others like to touch or undress them
The DSM-IV-TR defines pedophilia as: “persistently recurring sexual urges and erotic fantasies about sexual activities with children or adolescents” and those who engage in sexual activity. acting on those desires, or sexual desires or fantasies that cause stress disorders or impediments in interpersonal relationships. It should also be added that the individual must be 16 years of age or older and at least 5 years older than the abused child. Attention should be paid to sexual maturity, not to the age of the victim. Legally, there must be a clear line at what age individuals can have sex. Violation of those limits is not necessarily child molestation but could be a sex offender unless the other child is also a minor.
Sexual acts with children are also very different. Some people just look at them without touching them. Others like to touch or undress them. When sexual activity occurs, usually oral sex or groping of the child's genitals. Except in cases of incest, most cases do not have intercourse. When there is intercourse, it is usually with an older child and there may be an element of intimidation or coercion. However, it is still typical for these individuals to seek persuasion, seduction, and “intimacy” (Murray, 2000). Individuals with sexual promiscuity, if they like girls, are usually between the ages of 8-10, and if they like boys, they prefer slightly older children (APA, 1994). Most of these individuals are relatives, friends, or neighbors.
Greenberg et al. (1993) reported that 33% of people engaged in lewd behavior with children were only boys, 44% only girls, and 23% with children of both sexes.
It is difficult to determine the rate of sexual dysfunction in children. Most of the reviews reported the proportion of those who engaged in sexual abuse rather than the proportion of those who engaged in heterosexual behavior. Barbaree & Seto (1997) estimate that at least 7% of American women and 3% of men have experienced child sexual abuse. Some other reviews give higher rates.
Causes of child abuse
Theories on the causes of child molestation are few and focus on psychosocial factors rather than biological ones. These factors are both long-term and contiguous in causing the above behaviors.
Long-term risk factors
Many child sex offenders report that as a child, their parent-child relationship was damaged and/or they were sexually abused. In the study of Hanson and Slater (1987), this rate was up to 67%. The reliability of this data is difficult to say. Many people who commit child abuse have a right to be protected when reporting such acts to minimize the extent of responsibility for their own actions or to gain the sympathy of others. Attempts to determine reliability by questioning the subjects of such acts are tantamount to false statements. To limit such problems, Dhawan & Marshall (1996) used detailed questionnaires and interview methods to confirm or suspect false statements. They concluded that 50% of people incarcerated for sex activities with children had been sexually abused as children. However, that also does not explain that such phases are predictive indicators for later sex crimes.
Behavioral theory (e.g., Barbanee, 1990) suggests that individual child sex offenders develop a strong sexual desire for children after a combination of sexual stimulation and child images. Such associations are very common in early adolescence and can also be the beginning of disaster. However, these associations can also be promoted by masturbation or pornography. Using a test modeled after this model, Barbaree & Marshall (1989) measured the sexual response of men who sexually abused children but were not in their family, engaged in incestuous behavior, or claimed they have no sexual interest in young children. Test material and pictures of girls and adult women. Their results were also quite surprising. Less than half of out-of-home offenders and only 28% of incest offenders are sexually aroused by pictures of young women rather than adult women. It should also be added that 15% of men who said that they were not sexually interested in children were more sexually aroused when looking at paintings of girls compared with paintings of adult women. However, the conditional model may only be suitable for some individuals, but not for the whole.
These data suggest that sexual interest is not the only factor influencing the choice of men who have sex with children. Another very important factor is the breakdown of psychological and sexual relationships with adults. Many people who engage in sexual acts with children say that they are very lonely. This loneliness may stem from developing inappropriate attachment styles at an early age (Ward et al. 1996). So some seek closeness with young children, with whom they can easily provoke both physical and non-physical relationships and whom they can easily control. However, this is not true for all people who engage in sexual acts with children. This is also to emphasize that the path to heterosexuality varies widely between individuals.
Pithers (1990) adds to these basic elements by examining sex cases as early as possible. He suggested that lustful desires for children are often triggered by depressed mood states due to stress or conflict, and as a result, individuals seek ways to reduce negative feelings and allow themselves to work. into high-risk situations. And that seems to have brought them closer to the latter victim. Once in that situation, the desire to have sexual acts with the child becomes stronger and stronger. They then focus only on the sensations of lust and not on the bad outcome of the situation. Therefore, they easily engage in sexual acts with children. After that "urgent life" is over, they may feel remorse again, but still seem to have no control over the behavior.
Up to two-thirds of sex offenders either deny or minimize their personal role in the crime. Barbaree (1991) proposed three types of refusal:
Completely deny that nothing happened.
Acknowledging having sex but not admitting that it was illegal.
Acknowledge that there is physical contact but deny sexual elements.
The author also points out three types of mitigation including refusing to cause pain to the victim, reducing the scale of crime, and lowering the level of responsibility for the crime. Common cognitive distortions are this: young children are just as interested in sex as adults, and they seek sex with adults as well, and they enjoy and benefit from the experience. There are individuals who believe in some of that. Others are also calculating when telling lies to reduce negative reactions from others.
Psychosexual therapy with children
Child sexual activity is illegal and therapy is often initiated in prisons or forensic institutions. Even in these places, adherence to therapy programs is not required. Only about 25% of these identity offenders participate in therapy programs.
Physical therapy aims to suppress sexual urges and behaviors but does not change the object of desire. Not all child molesters are the same in terms of motivations and ways of acting. Here we present two opposing cases with very different outcomes.
John is a 30-year-old man, admitted to the hospital due to severe depressive episodes. Before his depression, he was a teacher at a school in the north of England. Although there is no evidence of his lewd acts with children, his name is on the child molester gang's distribution list of child nudity. His home was suddenly searched and many documents about child molestation were discovered. As a result, he was arrested by the police and charged with using child pornography. His school was also informed of the matter and he was immediately fired.
Also at this time he got married, however soon his wife filed for divorce. John moved to London, where he was able to "sink into the crowd" and have only a few contacts with his family. Here he begins to suffer from depression then is admitted to the hospital. After trusting the therapist, he began to tell his story.
He admitted that he used child pornography to satisfy his sexual desires and especially liked pictures of boys. His marriage was purely obligatory and sexually unsatisfactory. Prior to his marriage, he had had same-sex relationships with people who were not age-appropriate. All of that, however, generally ended in misfortune. He is aware that his sexual interest is inappropriate and is ashamed of it.
John has no intention of correcting his behavior, but whenever he touches the boys' bodies or even looks at pornography, he thinks it's morally unacceptable. Depression is a consequence of unemployment and marriage and he may no longer be able to get a job. His shame as well as his behavior were well known. He lives alone and avoids meeting people. John rarely leaves the apartment and often avoids places where children might congregate.
Because he felt his sexual interests were inappropriate and embarrassing, he decided to engage in therapy. He got involved in masturbation change programs. In this show, John starts masturbating while imagining boys getting sexual stimulation. Then shift the imaginary focus to older children or young men. He found that he enjoyed imagining the image of a male Hollywood star (unknown name until then). The show is well done and he finds it possible to be sexually aroused when imagining the image of a grown man.
Despite these results and according to him using only child pornography, his behavior occurred at least once according to the pattern proposed by Pitherss (1990). At that moment, when he was feeling bored and decided to go for a walk, something prompted him "catastrophically," to the shopping district where students of a local school used to gather. practice. He "randomly" passed a (public) toilet when a boy entered. At that moment he was stimulated by the feeling of wanting to see the boy's body parts and followed him to the bathroom. In the toilet he watched the boy pee. The boy was also aware of his presence and there was no physical or social contact either. Even so, the incident did highlight the need to reiterate the prevention program. In this program, he is offered several options of action when feeling bored or feeling the need for sexual stimulation. There are also not many options for action, including calling family or visiting and focusing on trifles at home. One of the things he mustn't do is leave home for no reason because it can lead to an "accident": going to high-risk places. Both types of interventions have made good progress after this point and he has made real changes. Go for solace because this can lead to “accidents”: going to high-risk places. Both types of interventions have made good progress after this point and he has made real changes. Go for solace because this can lead to “accidents”: going to high-risk places. Both types of interventions have made good progress after this point and he has made real changes.
Unlike John, Stephen is a relatively attractive person, despite being in his 50s. He lived mainly in London at the time of the crime. His story involves making friends with single mothers with teenage daughters. After a while, he moved in with them. He even dragged his daughter up to the room with them in the morning under the pretext that "they can make a perfect family". Once that habit was acquired, and without his mother, he engaged in sexual intercourse with at least two daughters. He went to therapy for several months before being called to court. Still, he insisted that his behavior was normal. He told the therapist that he himself helped these girls have sexual pleasure by: "It's better for a sexually experienced man to lead them (these girls) into the world of sex than a freckled and clumsy boy who doesn't know what to do." He attended therapy for only a few sessions but always claimed that there was nothing wrong with his behavior. He then quit therapy shortly before being called to court. He also did not appear in court and was no longer found in his apartment.
Castration and neurosurgery have been deprecated. However, the pharmacological approach using drugs that block the production or activity of androgens, which affect male sexual response, is still used. However, the results are also very modest. For example, Berlin & Meinecke (1981) followed 20 men taking androgen blockers; 3 people relapsed during treatment and the relapse rate was high after stopping the drug. The main problem with antiandrogen therapy is that between 30 and 100% of the people prescribed are not taking the drug (Barbaree & Seto, 1997). Most people who stop smoking are repeat offenders because they cannot change their thoughts and attitudes about deviant behaviors. Moreover, the drug also has many side effects such as weight gain and testicular atrophy. These are also the factors that motivate them to quit smoking. Ultimately, these therapies only work for people with unusually high testosterone levels. Most people who engage in child molestation are not among them, so they do not benefit from therapy even if they cooperate fully.
Both methods: aversion therapy and masturbation modification methods are used for child sexual abuse. In antipsychotic therapy, inappropriate sexual stimulation occurs in conjunction with an objectionable event, such as a mild electric shock or a very unpleasant odor. This process is thus seen as conditioning the negative emotional state to sexual stimuli. Most studies show a decrease in sexual desire with stimulation (girls, boys). However, it may not reduce crime. For example, Rice et al. (1991) followed 136 homeless child molesters, 50 of whom received derogatory therapy after being released from prison. Over a period of more than 6 years, 31% have re-offended.
Modification of masturbation is accomplished by initially generating a sexual response using preferred erotic images. Once they have achieved an erection, they will switch to more suitable images, such as nude women or men. They continue to masturbate to climax while focusing highly on that image. This approach can be combined with series of images that progress towards "normal". This approach also has many advantages over objection therapy. First, it has fewer ethnic issues and is more acceptable to clients. Second, it requires no lab equipment and can be practiced after each session. Although there are not many experiments to confirm its effectiveness, it is generally considered to have certain results (Laws & Marshall, 1991).
Prevention of recurrence is accomplished by instructing the individual to:
Identify situations where there is a high risk of recidivism.
Get out of a dangerous situation.
Seeing mistakes is also a lesson.
Identify factors that lead to relapse and determine how to avoid them.
A relapse prevention program by Marques et al. (2000) is also an example of this type. This program includes a supervised intensive care inpatient program in the hospital and a 1-year post-release consolidation program. Attendees learned about sex and general coping skills, such as relaxation, stress and anger management, and social skills. Specialized interventions include identifying behaviors that often precede criminal behavior and how they can be cut. In addition, they discussed the level of responsibility and how to limit it. Follow-up at 5 years showed a recurrence rate of 10.8% with this type of intervention compared with 13% in the no-intervention group - a very modest but significant difference. The program is quite effective for those whose victims are women but less effective for those whose victims are men. It is also not clear why this is so.
Efficacy of therapy
Measuring the effectiveness of programs for offenders is difficult. But changes due to reporting also need to be noted, and the data on relapses are also often based on data from the authorities. These are just numbers that everyone already knows. Therefore, there are no convincing studies on the effectiveness of therapeutic programs. Even so, Hall (1995) also had a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of different types of interventions. It is worth noting that there are many people who drop out of both types of interventions. Causes are often complex criminal history, denial, and behavioral disturbances in prison. Overall, the most effective are still relapse prevention programs and hormone therapy. Both forms of intervention were equally effective. For those participating in a recidivism prevention program, the recidivism rate was about 15% over the 3-year period compared with 35.5% in the nonparticipant group. As for hormone therapy, the relapse rate was 22% over 10 years compared with 36% in those who received no intervention. Hall (1995) also reported that about two-thirds of people who participate in hormone therapy have given up, of which more than 50% have failed to continue in the first place. In contrast, only one-third of people who participate in anti-recidivism programs give up. On this basis, the author believes that a recidivism prevention program can be a good choice. of which more than 50% from the beginning did not maintain continuously. In contrast, only one-third of people who participate in anti-recidivism programs give up. On this basis, the author believes that a recidivism prevention program can be a good choice. of which more than 50% from the beginning did not maintain continuously. In contrast, only one-third of people who participate in anti-recidivism programs give up. On this basis, the author believes that a recidivism prevention program can be a good choice.
To involve as many people as possible in therapy, Marshall (1994) used a group approach to shift people who deny or accept only partial admissions into interventions that they feel are appropriate but accept responsibility. about their behaviors, intervention is carried out by means of a system of group meetings, where each member attends as needed and they leave the group when their individual condition improves. groups or individuals will narrate the events that led to their presence here, focusing more deeply on the facts of allegation and responsibility. Once there is clear evidence of the offense, other members are invited to analyze and then recount their problems and take into account the issues of the individual under discussion. Marshall (1994) observes that in those who have gone through this process, the rate of denial or only partial admission has decreased significantly. While this could be a promising process, it has not been determined whether the changes are real or simply being announced by the participants in order to separate from the group.
Can we predict repeat offenders?
It is not possible to predict exactly who is at risk of recidivism. However, many clinicians have also identified factors that can help predict. For example, Quinsey cs. (1995) correctly identified 72% of repeat offenders. Those who have a history of crime, trouble, live alone, have a high score on the psychopathy checklist (see chapter 11) and have been arrested for sex crimes. The authors suggest that these factors, when combined with an individual's data on therapy, can help determine the length of prison sentence or release. Currently, after being released from prison, sex prisoners are still monitored and monitored by the police or by residents of the area. In some states in the United States, individuals who engage in sexual acts with children living in the community are required to report this to those living in the area. Some have also called for the practice to be adopted in the UK. That, however, is not without danger. At the time of writing this section, the British press reported that a person accused of child molestation had been beaten to death by villagers at his home. This approach can also have the opposite effect. In the United States, about 80% of child molesters released to the community are known to police and social services. This figure in the UK is above 90%. Many child molesters are afraid of public reprisals and prefer to hide rather than be open about their actions. About 80% of child molesters released to the community are known to the police and social services. This figure in the UK is above 90%. Many child molesters are afraid of public reprisals and prefer to hide rather than be open about their actions. About 80% of child molesters released to the community are known to the police and social services. This figure in the UK is above 90%. Many child molesters are afraid of public reprisals and prefer to hide rather than be open about their actions.