The nature of schizophrenia

2021-07-15 04:39 PM

However, most agree that it includes disorders related to thinking and perception.

Schizophrenia is one of the most controversial psychiatric diagnoses. Through the ages, it has been debated whether a state of schizophrenia really exists, is it genetic or environmental, and whether it is necessary to treat it with drugs and electric shock. or need more psycho-social therapy. This chapter will address each of those issues. By the end of the chapter, you will have learned:

The nature of schizophrenia.

Understanding the “symptoms” of schizophrenia.

Roles and possible causes of genetic, familial, and psycho-social factors.

Neurological and neurotransmitter models of the disorder.

Psychological model of the experience of people diagnosed with schizophrenia.

Different therapeutic approaches to schizophrenia and their effectiveness.

What is now known as schizophrenia was first described by Kraepelin in 1883 with the term dementia praecox. This term refers to a patient with progressive, irreversible disintegration of the function of the pre-disease stage. A few years later, Bleuler (1908) identified four basic symptoms, which he considered to be the four groups of schizophrenia: contradictory duality, association disorder, affective disorder, and unrealistic delusions. economic. Historically, many of them had some neurological damage, including lethargy encephalitis (Boyle 1990).

To this day people continue to debate the nature of schizophrenia. However, most agree that it includes disorders related to thinking and perception. Thought process disturbances are often cited as the most common symptom of schizophrenia. The story lacks connection is jumping from one topic to another and is moving from one thought to another, completely unrelated. People with schizophrenia may have new word formations or mixed word associations. They may have the feeling that someone is imposing their thoughts on them, causing them to lose direction in the conversation or in their thoughts, or even say incomplete sentences. Such phenomena include delusions of dominance (both types: being able to dominate others and being dominated by others), delusions of grandeur (believing that you are rich, famous, genius) and related paranoia (believing that every other person's behavior is directly related to him: touches, glances, laughter are directed at them). People with schizophrenia may also hallucinate, mainly auditory hallucinations. The content of the hallucinations is also very different, from mild to harassing, tormenting… The emotions of these people are also described as blunt. Often they have little emotional response, although they may have aggressive or depressive states and are often due to internal thoughts or hallucinations. torture… The emotions of these people are also described as blunt. Often they have little emotional response, although they may have aggressive or depressive states and are often due to internal thoughts or hallucinations. torture… The emotions of these people are also described as blunt. Often they have little emotional response, although they may have aggressive or depressive states and are often due to internal thoughts or hallucinations.

Personal experience

The experiences of people with schizophrenia also vary widely, depending on how much an experience interferes with their lives. Many people have the paranoia that persists but does not greatly affect their lives; for others, the experience can be problematic. Please cite two examples of Michael and David. Michael is a middle-aged man who was diagnosed with schizophrenia several years ago. He leads a normal life in a small apartment in Cardiff. One of Michel's paranoia is that he is afraid of strangers, possibly from extraterrestrial lasers:

The laser attacked me. They aimed at my head. When they shot, I knew because I had a headache at that time. They don't shoot me continuously. They come and go. I don't know what I did to make them torture me like this. This went on for several years. They often shoot me in the head so I have to wear a hat to protect my head every time they shoot. I wrapped the helmet with metal sheet so it would knock back the laser…and that way they couldn't shoot me…I assume they all banded together to do it…last time they shot me was on Sunday morning. They woke me up - I mean the lasers almost hurt my head. I couldn't get out of bed because of the pain. I have to wear a helmet and stay ready to avoid getting hurt…That sucks. I usually use my helmet to block lasers, but sometimes they do.

In another case, due to acute and severe paranoia, David was hospitalized. Naked, David ran through the streets and declared that he was the son of God who came to protect people from sin. When admitted to the hospital, David stated:

I am the savior, I am David, the protector…I will protect you from your sins. Those sins can lead you to the crematorium of hell, not God's heaven. You mustn't keep me…God will be angry with you, with the whole world, the Devil will arrest you because you are guilty of keeping me here…It's great, then you will be killed for daring to hold me captive. child of God…I have come to protect the world…You must not hold me captive… I am here according to the will of God and Jesus. God only speaks to me, not to you. God is angry about the evils of the world, about the things that man has done…that is sin, everything… the wings of angels will come and take us out of this place.

Approximately 1% of adults are diagnosed with schizophrenia (APA 2000). The prevalence of the disease is relatively similar in different countries, cultures, and across different periods. The age of onset is usually between the ages of 20 and 35. In women, the age of onset is usually 3-4 years later than in men, with a second peak at menopause. It is an episodic disorder with acute phases and periods of remission. Wiersma et al. (1998) conducted a cohort study of people with schizophrenia in the 15 years from the first episode, 2/3 of the people had at least one relapse and after each relapse 1/6 of the cases. non-recoverable case. 1 in 10 committed suicide during the study period. Factors associated with a good prognosis include acute onset, predisposing and identifiable stressors, the predominance of positive symptoms,