Asthma

2021-07-24 08:28 AM

Shortness of breath, chest tightness or pain, cough or wheezing, hissing sound when exhaling, coughing, or shortness of breath made worse by a respiratory virus such as a cold or flu

Define

When you have asthma, the airways are narrowed and swollen. It produces extra mucus, and breathing becomes difficult. The most common signs and symptoms of asthma are coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath. For some people, asthma symptoms are a minor nuisance. For others, they are a major problem that interferes with daily functioning. If you have severe asthma, you may be at risk of a life-threatening asthma attack.

Asthma cannot be cured, but its symptoms can be controlled. Treatment includes taking steps to avoid triggering a specific asthma attack, using a long-term controller, and using a quick-release medicine to prevent an asthma attack and to control symptoms after it has started. Because asthma changes over time, work with your doctor to monitor your signs and symptoms and adjust treatment as needed.

Symptoms

Asthma symptoms range from mild to severe and vary from person to person. From mild symptoms may feel normal and no shortness of breath may be mild and asthma attacks may be frequent. Symptoms may be present mainly at night, during exercise, or when exposed to specific allergens. Or there may be asthma symptoms.

Asthma signs and symptoms include:

Shortness of breath.

Chest tightness or chest pain.

Shortness of breath, coughing, or wheezing makes it difficult to sleep.

A wheezing or wheezing sound on exhalation (wheezing is a common sign of asthma in children).

Cough or wheezing is worsened by a respiratory virus such as a cold or flu.

Signs that asthma may be getting worse include:
 
Irritating signs of asthma symptoms more often.

Increased dyspnea (this can be measured with a peak flow meter, a simple device used to check the lungs).

The need to use rapid sprays is increasingly frequent.

For some people, asthma symptoms flare up in certain situations:

Asthma occurs during exercise. For many people, exercise makes asthma worse when exposed to cold, dry air.

Occupational asthma is asthma caused or made worse by entering the workplace with irritants such as chemical fumes, gases or dust.
 
Allergies cause asthma. Some people have asthma symptoms that are triggered by particular allergens, such as pet dander, cockroaches, or pollen.

Situations when you can talk to your doctor about asthma:

Think you have asthma. If you frequently have a cough that lasts more than a few days or any other signs or symptoms of asthma, see your doctor. Treating asthma early, especially in children, can prevent long-term lung damage and help keep the condition from getting worse over time.

Monitor asthma after diagnosis. If you know you have asthma, work with your doctor to keep it under control. Good long-term asthma control not only helps you feel better every day but can also prevent life-threatening asthma attacks.

If your asthma symptoms are worse. Contact your doctor right away if the medication does not seem to improve symptoms easily or requires more and more frequent use of quick relief with medication. Do not try to solve the problem by taking medicine without consulting your doctor. Overuse of asthma medications can cause side effects and can even make asthma worse.

Review treatment. Asthma changes over time. See your doctor on a regular basis to discuss symptoms and make any necessary adjustments to treatment.

Seek emergency treatment when:

Severe asthma attacks can be life-threatening. Work with your doctor ahead of time to determine what to do when signs and symptoms worsen, and when urgent treatment is needed. If quick-relief medicine does not relieve symptoms of a severe asthma attack, seek emergency help right away.

Signs of an asthma emergency include:

Shortness of breath or wheezing that rapidly worsens.

No improvement, even after taking a quick reliever like albuterol.

Shortness of breath during minimal physical activity.

Causes

It's not clear why some people have asthma and others don't, but this may be due to a combination of environmental and genetic factors.

Asthma causes different symptoms from person to person.

Exposure to a number of different allergens and irritants can cause asthma signs and symptoms, including:

Pollen, animal dander, mold, cockroaches, and dust mites.

Respiratory tract infections, such as the common cold.

Physical activity (exercise causes asthma).

Cold.

Air pollutants and irritants, such as smoking.

Certain medications, including beta-blockers, aspirin, and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

Strong emotions and stress.

Sulfite, a preservative added to some foods and beverages.

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), a condition in which stomach acid enters the throat.

Menstrual cycle in women.

Allergic reactions to certain foods, such as peanuts or shellfish.

Risk factors

Asthma is common, affecting millions of adults and children. The number diagnosed each year is increasing, but the reason why is unclear.

Several factors are thought to increase the likelihood of developing asthma. These include:

Family history (such as parents or siblings) of asthma.

Have an allergic condition, such as atopic dermatitis or allergic rhinitis.

Overweight.

Smoke.

Exposure to tobacco smoke.

Mother smoked while pregnant.

Exposure to exhaust gases or other types of pollution.

Occupational exposure, such as chemicals used in agriculture, hairdressing, and manufacturing.

Exposure to allergens, certain germs, and having certain types of bacterial or viral infections may also be risk factors. However, more research is needed to determine what may play a role in developing asthma.

Complications

Asthma can cause a number of complications, including:

Symptoms interfere with sleep, work, or leisure activities.

The disease affects daily work or school.

Narrowing of the permanent bronchial tubes.

Severe asthma attacks require urgent emergency care and hospitalization.

Side effects from long-term use of certain medications used to stabilize severe asthma.

The appropriate treatment makes a big difference in preventing both short- and long-term complications from asthma.

Preparations for medical examination

Because visits can be time-limited, and because there are often many problems to present. Here's some information to help get ready for your visit and what to expect from your doctor.

These steps can help you get the most out of your appointment

Write down any symptoms you experience, including any that seem unrelated to the reason for attending.

Note when symptoms bother the most - For example, if symptoms tend to get worse at certain times of day, during certain seasons, or when exposed to cold air, pollen, or other cause.

Record key personal information, including any key points or recent life changes.

Make a list of all medications, vitamins, and supplements you're taking.

Take a family member, if possible. Sometimes it can be difficult to absorb all the information provided during the examination. Someone traveling with you may remember something that is forgotten.

Time with your doctor is limited, so preparing a list of questions will help make the most of your time. List of questions from most important to least important in case of short time.

For asthma, some basic questions to ask your doctor include

What causes asthma and breathing problems?

What other cause is most likely, what other cause could be causing the symptoms?

What kind of tests do you need?

Can symptoms be temporary or chronic?

What is the best treatment?

What are the alternatives to the proposed primary approach?

I have another medical problem. How can I best manage them together?

Are there any restrictions that need to be followed?

Cost, and insurance?

What else is there to replace the prescribed medication?

In addition to the questions you've prepared to ask your doctor, don't hesitate to ask other questions during the appointment.

Your doctor will likely ask some questions. Ready to answer them. The doctor may ask

Exactly what symptoms are there?

When were the first symptoms?

When are symptoms severe?

Is it difficult to breathe most of the time, or only at certain times or in certain situations?

Do you have allergies, such as atopic dermatitis or hay fever?

What, if anything, is the appearance of worsening symptoms?

What, if anything, seems to improve symptoms?

Family history of allergies or asthma?

Any chronic health problems?

Tests and diagnostics

Diagnosing asthma can be difficult. Signs and symptoms can range from mild to severe and are often similar to those of other illnesses, including emphysema, early congestive heart failure, or vocal cord problems. Children often develop temporary breathing problems with symptoms similar to asthma. For example, it can be difficult to differentiate between asthma and bronchitis, pneumonia, and reactive airway disease.

To rule out other possible conditions, your doctor will do a physical exam and ask questions about your signs and symptoms and about other health problems. Lung function tests may also be performed to determine how air moves when breathing.

Tests to measure lung function include

Spirometry measurement. This test measures the narrowing of the bronchial tubes by testing the air that can be exhaled after taking a deep, quick breath.

Flow peak.

Function testing is usually done before and after taking a bronchodilator such as albuterol to open up the airways. If lung function improves from the use of bronchodilators, asthma is likely.

Tests to diagnose asthma include

Test methacholine. If you have asthma, inhaling a known trigger called methacholine will cause mild constriction of the airways. If you react to the trigger, you may have asthma. This test may be used if the initial lung function test is normal.

Nitric oxide test. This test is sometimes used to diagnose and monitor asthma. It measures the amount of a gas called nitric oxide present in the breath. If you have airway inflammation - a sign of asthma, you may have higher levels of nitric oxide. This test is not widely available.

Classification of asthma

To grade asthma, your doctor will review answers to questions about your symptoms (such as how often you have attacks and how to reduce them), along with your physical exam and results. diagnostic test. Determining the severity of your asthma will help your doctor choose the best treatment. Asthma severity frequently changes over time, requiring adjustments to treatment.

Asthma is classified into four main types

Classification of asthma

 

Signs and symptoms

Continuous mild

 

Mild symptoms up to twice a week and up to two nights a month

Persistent mild

 

Symptoms more than twice a week, but no more than once a day

Persistent average

 

Symptoms once a day, more than one night a week

Persistent severe

 

Symptoms throughout the day on most days and often at night

Treatments and drugs

Long-term prevention, control, and control are key to stopping pain. Common-sense links to take to get and create steps to avoid them, and breath monitoring to make sure medication is under control daily. In the event of an asthma attack, it may be necessary to use a quick-relief medication such as albuterol.

Medicine

The right medication depends on including age, certificate of acute asthma, and what works best to keep asthma under control. Preventive, long-term control drugs reduce inflammation in the airways that lead to certifications. Solution Management Support Solution will quickly open airways with restricted breathing aborted. In some cases, medication for a value modifier may be necessary.

Long-term control. In most cases, these medications need to be taken every day.

Long-term control drugs

Corticosteroid stimulation. These drugs include fluticasone, budesonide, mometasone, flunisolide, beclomethasone, and others. Those are the most commonly prescribed types of long-term asthma medications. It may be necessary to use these drugs for several days to weeks before maximum benefit is achieved. Unlike oral corticosteroids, this form of corticosteroid medication has dangerous side effects and is generally safe for long-term use.

Leukotrienes. Oral medications include montelukast, zafirlukast, and zileuton. Helps prevent stock asthma for up to 24 hours. In rare cases, these drugs have been linked to mind feedback such as anxiety, hallucinations, depression, and self-reflection. Seek medical attention immediately when any reaction occurs.

LABA. The drugs include salmeterol and formoterol. LABAs open airways and inflammation. However, it is linked to cramping pain. LABA should only be combined with corticosteroid stimulation.

Combination drugs such as fluticasone and salmeterol, budesonide and formoterol. This drug type is having LABA with corticosteroids. Like other LABA drugs, these drugs may increase your risk of having a severe asthma attack at work.

Theophylline. This is the drug member used every day to help keep the open time. Theophylline massage relaxes the surroundings to make breathing easier.

Instant pharmaceutical support

Medicines are used when needed for quick short-term relief of symptoms during an asthma attack or before exercise if a doctor presents a problem. Medications that help quickly include:

Derivative short beta transport origin. You can easily hear the fan quickly so that you can enjoy the natural joy in your body. We include albuterol, levalbuterol and pirbuterol. This drug type works in minutes and affects over time.

Ipratropium (Atrovent). Your doctor can prescribe this medication, which helps with immediate certification. Like other relaxants, ipratropium relaxes the airways, making relaxation easier. Ipratropium is mainly used for bad breath and bronchitis, but it doubles when used to treat asthma attacks.

Intravenous and oral corticosteroids. These medications reduce airway inflammation caused by severe asthma. Examples are prednisone and methylprednisolone. Side-effect weighting can be given when used long-term, so only short-term use is used for severe symptoms.

The allergic treatment causes asthma. If asthma is triggered or worsened by the app, it is possible to benefit from it.

Allergy treatments include

Immunotherapy. Immunotherapy injections are usually once a week for a few months, then once a month for 3 to 5 years. Over time, gradually the immune system's response to the specific allergen decreases.

Omalizumab (Xolair). This medicine is especially for people with severe allergies and asthma. It works by altering the immune system. Omalizumab is given as an injection every 2 to 4 weeks.

Antiallergic drugs. These include oral antihistamines and nasal sprays and decongestants as well, cromolyn and ipratropium nasal sprays.

Don't rely on quick-relief pills. Long-term asthma control medications - such as inhaled corticosteroids - are the cornerstone of asthma treatment. These asthma medicines keep under control on a daily basis and make it less likely to have an asthma attack.

If you have an asthma attack, a quick-relief inhaler can easily improve symptoms right away. But if long-term control medications are working properly, there is no need to use quick-relief inhalers as often. If you need to use quick-relief medicine more often than your doctor recommends, see your doctor. Long-term controller medication may need to be adjusted.

Bronchial thermoplasty. This treatment is used for severe asthma that does not improve with inhaled corticosteroids or other long-term medications. Usually performed in three outpatient visits, bronchial thermoplasty heats the inside of the airways in the lungs with an electrode, which relaxes airway smooth muscle. This limits the ability of the airways to constrict makes breathing easier and can relieve asthma attacks. Bronchial thermoplasty is not widely available. More research is needed to determine whether the benefits of this treatment may outweigh the risks and potential side effects.

Asthma control-based treatment can help manage asthma

Asthma treatment should be flexible and based on changes in symptoms and should be carefully evaluated at each physician visit. Then treatment can be adjusted accordingly. For example, if your asthma is under control, your doctor may prescribe less medication. If your asthma is not well controlled or is getting worse, your doctor may increase your medication and recommend more frequent visits.

Work with your doctor to create an action plan, outlining text to take certain medications, or to increase or decrease medication doses based on symptoms. The action plan should also trigger the to-do list and steps. The plan may also involve monitoring asthma symptoms or measuring peak flow on a regular basis to monitor treatment.

Lifestyle and Remedies

Although many people with asthma rely on medication to prevent and relieve symptoms, a few things can be done to stay healthy and reduce the chances of an asthma attack.

Avoid activation. Reducing exposure to things that trigger asthma symptoms is an important part of asthma control.

Here are a few things that might help

Use air conditioning. Air conditioners reduce the amount of pollen in the air from trees, grass, and weeds found indoors. Air conditioning also reduces indoor humidity and can reduce exposure to dust mites. If air conditioning is not available, try to keep windows closed during the pollen season.

Disinfect furniture. Dust can worsen nighttime symptoms. Minimize by replacing certain items in the bedroom. For example, pillow covers, spring mattresses, and boxes. Remove carpeting and floor coverings and maybe wash curtains and clean glass.

Maintain optimum humidity. If you live in a humid climate, talk to your doctor about using a dehumidifier.

Keep the indoor air clean. Check air conditioners and heaters once a year. Change filters in furnaces and air conditioners according to the manufacturer's instructions. It is also advisable to install a fine particulate filter in the ventilation system. If using a humidifier, change the water daily.

Reduce fur. If allergic to fur, avoid pets with fur. Pets that are regularly bathed or brushed can also reduce the amount of hair around them.

Clean regularly. Clean the house at least once a week. If dust agitation is likely, wear a mask or have someone else do the cleaning.

If asthma is worsened by cold, dry air, a mask can help.

Be always fine. Taking care of yourself and treating other asthma-related conditions will help keep symptoms under control.

Prevention

Working together, your doctor can design a plan of steps for living with the condition and preventing an asthma attack.

Follow the action plan. With a team of doctors and health care providers, write a detailed plan for taking medication and managing an asthma attack. Then be sure to follow the plan. Asthma is an ongoing condition and requires regular monitoring and treatment.

Identify and avoid asthma triggers. Certain outdoor allergens and irritants from pollen and mold, with cold and polluted air, can trigger an asthma attack. Find out what causes or worsens asthma, and take steps to avoid it.

Follow the breath. Can learn to recognize warning signs of an impending asthma attack, such as coughing, wheezing, or difficulty breathing. But because lung function can decline before any signs or symptoms are noticed, regularly measuring and recording airflow is necessary.

Early recognition and treatment of asthma attacks. If you act quickly, you will be less likely to have a severe asthma attack. It also doesn't take much medication to control symptoms. When peak flow measurement decreases and warns of an impending asthma attack, take medication as directed immediately and stop any activity that may trigger an asthma attack. If symptoms do not improve, get medical help as directed in the action plan.

Take medication as prescribed. Asthma seems to be improving but doesn't change anything without talking to your doctor first, so he or she can double-check that the medication is being used correctly and in the correct dose.

Pay attention to the use of quick-relief tube medications. If you find yourself relying on a quick-relief inhaler such as albuterol, your asthma attack is not controlled. See your doctor about adjusting your treatment.