Peripheral aneurysm pathology

2021-01-30 12:00 AM

Central nervous system anaemia caused by embolism of blood clots, reduced blood flow to the brain and pressure. Complications of rupture of carotid aneurysms are uncommon today.

Peripheral aneurysm is usually less than that of the aorta. There are many causes of peripheral aneurysms, of which atherosclerosis is the most common. The most common sites of peripheral aneurysms are: the carotid artery, the subclavic artery, the axillary artery, the femoral artery and the artery. Depending on the location, there are specific methods of diagnosis and treatment.

Carotid aneurysm

The most common site is the common carotid artery, especially where it is split. The rhomboid is common in the aneurysm at the split site, and the sac is common in the inner carotid aneurysm. The cause of atherosclerosis accounts for 50% of cases. Causes of trauma and surgery are rare. It used to be caused by syphilis, but it is rarer today.

The most important risk for carotid aneurysms is causing intermittent transient ischemia and stroke.

Central nervous system anaemia caused by embolism of blood clots, reduced blood flow to the brain and pressure. Complications of rupture of carotid aneurysms are uncommon today.

Diagnose

Clinical signs

Found a pounding mass in the path of the anterior sternal artery under the jawbone with systolic murmur. Sometimes the patient feels a pounding sensation in the Amydale fossa or in the throat and mouth without any outward manifestations. There may be symptoms of tension and pain, or sometimes no symptoms.

For distal carotid aneurysms can cause facial pain, cranial nerve paralysis 5, 6. Deafness, or Horner syndrome when pressed into the base of the skull.

Subclinical

Doppler vascular ultrasound helps to determine the location and extent of the expansion of the distal carotid artery aneurysm sac.

CT Scan, IRM helps diagnose lesions in coordinated neck area.

Angiography still plays an important role in diagnosing carotid aneurysms. Identifying damage to the extraocular carotid artery and cerebral branches helps appropriate treatment strategy.

Differential diagnosis

Carotid arteries are long and dilated.

U can scene.

Large neck nodules.

A mass is located on the side of the carotid artery.

Treatment

The majority of carotid aneurysms are combined with long and dilated carotid artery so radiectomy can reach up to 50% of cases.

Carotid aneurysms are treated with cut-out of the aneurysm and grafting the arteries with an intravenous or protheses artery. Aneurysm vasectomy and artery grafting can be removed with a patch for a pouch.

Aneurysms of the subclade and axillary arteries

The subclass and axillary aneurysms account for 1% of the peripheral aneurysms. Approximately 75% of subarachnoid aneurysms are caused by ladder syndrome. In contrast to axillary aneurysm the main cause is an artery injury.

Diagnose

Most of the subclade and axillary aneurysms manifest as the result of the hypotenic embolism. Or may cause neurological symptoms by pinching the brachial plexus. For the right subcutaneous aneurysm can cause reversible nerve compression causing hoarseness. The degree of embolism depends on the location and the accessory circulatory system.

Chest X-rays can reveal an aneurysm under the proximal clavicle. For axillary and subarachnoid aneurysms that can be diagnosed on physical examination, Doppler ultrasound angiography helps us to diagnose and guide diagnosis.

Treatment

Removal of the graft aneurysm by a segment of a vein or an artery. For the right subclavic aneurysm the proximal segment, the thoracic opening is along the middle of the sternum extending to the base of the neck. For the proximal subcutaneous aneurysm, the left anterior chest opening. For the proximal axillary aneurysm and the further sub clip artery choose the incision route on the collarbone.

Aneurysm of the thigh artery

The femoral aneurysm occupies the second place in the peripheral aneurysm. The main cause is atherosclerosis. Other causes are trauma, infection, and fungus. An aneurysm of the thigh can cause distal embolism.

Diagnose

Mainly based on clinical examination. A smooth, diamond-shaped bulging sac is palpable, expanding with heart rate, and a systolic murmur is heard.

Angiography and ultrasound help diagnose the limited size site of an aneurysm. 85% of patients with femoral aneurysm due to atherosclerosis often combine pelvic aortic aneurysm, atrophy.

Treatment

Aneurysm removal, an artery transplantation with a vein or an artery protheses.

Arterial aneurysm

Surgery to have a steoch is difficult. The cause is atherosclerosis, 50% of the artery is bilateral. Over 75% of the aortic aneurysms coordinate with the aneurysm in other locations such as the aorta, pelvis, and thigh.

Diagnose

The clinical symptom is embolism-induced distal anaemia. Examination to detect bleeding spots on the extremities.

Examination of deformed large artery. Embryo-induced downstream anaemia often leads to irreversible anaemia.

The manifestations of pinched nerve such as pain, paralysis, dysfunction in the calf, compression in the crooked veins cause symptoms of calf oedema, superficial varicose veins. When the rupture of the aneurysm, bleeding is uncommon, often forming a hematoma that compresses the artery, causing severe hypodermic anaemia.

Subclinical

Doppler vascular ultrasound helps to diagnose.

The role of preoperative angiography is important to help determine the extent of the aneurysm and the condition of the blood vessels under the lesion to operate as a surgical external bridge.

Treatment

Aneurysm resets the blood vessel by means of a vein or artery protheses.

External bridge of the femoral artery, the far segment of the artery, forcing the proximal artery.