Symptoms of internal medicine

Medical record, Surgical abdominal surgery, General burns, Internal bleeding syndrome, Obstructive syndrome, Intestinal obstruction syndrome, Exploitation of surgical clinical symptoms.

Yergason test: Cause and mechanism formation

The long head of the biceps raises the arms. So when muscles and tendons are strained or inflamed or damaged against arm extension, pain can occur.

Knee osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis is secondary to trauma, congenital malformations, developmental disorders, history of surgery or bone disease, bleeding disorders, endocrine, and metabolic disorders.

Capillary dilation: Cause and the mechanism of formation

It is difficult to give the individual mechanism of each type of capillary dilation. The main mechanism is due to chronic capillary dilation. The exception to hereditary hemorrhagic vasodilatation syndrome is the presence of actual damage to the blood vessels

Uneven thorax enlargement: Cause and mechanism

Equal expansion of the thorax on both sides depends on the muscular system, the normal functioning of the nervous system, and the elasticity of the lungs. Therefore, any abnormality in the nerve can cause the chest to expand unevenly

Shortness of breath while lying down: mechanism and cause

The currently accepted theory of the onset of dyspnea while lying down is that the redistribution of fluid from the visceral circulation and lower extremities back to the central circulation occurs when lying flat.

Loss of sense of smell: signs, symptoms, and causes

Loss of sense of smell is an important sign associated with the frontal lobe (eg, meningioma) or neurodegeneration (eg, Alzheimer's disease), but the most common cause is a disorder in the nose

Babinski sign: signs, symptoms and causes

Babinski sign occurs when stimulation of the lateral plantar aspect of the foot leads to extension (dorsiflexion or upward movement) of the big toe (hallux). Also, there may be fanning of the other toes

Corneal reflex: signs, symptoms, and causes

The corneal reflex examination is useful in unilateral hearing loss and unilateral hemifacial weakness, and in assessing brain stem function. Loss of corneal reflex was observed in 8% of normal elderly patients in one study

Speech disorders: signs, symptoms and causes

A speech disorder is a symptom of cerebellar dysfunction, but it can also be seen in many other situations. There are different types of speech disorders in terms of speed, volume, rhythm, and sound of speech.

Cavernous sinus syndrome: signs, symptoms and causes

Cavernous sinus syndrome has a high morbidity and mortality rate, due to damage to the nerve fibers of the cavernous sinus, the pulley, the trigeminal, the external oculomotor, and the communication fibers.

Hyperreflexia: signs, symptoms, and causes

Hyperreflexia is a symptom of upper motor neurons. Upper motor neuron lesions increase gamma motor neuron activity and decrease medial inhibitory neuron activity

Decreased reflexes and loss of reflexes: signs, symptoms, and causes

In a few studies of patients with previously undiagnosed neuropathy, 6-50% of patients lost bilateral calcaneal reflexes despite intensification maneuvers

Impairment hearing loss: signs, symptoms and causes

Asymmetric receptive deafness associated with CNS damage. Clinically, significant hearing loss (ie >30 dB) is often missed in about 50% of cases without formal assessment

Chicken feet gait (high-stepping gait): signs, symptoms and causes

Chicken feet gait is related to drooping feet. The droopy foot is caused by weakness of the anterior shin muscle groups (eg, the anterior tibialis, the long staphylococcus, and the short extensor of the big toe).

Hoarseness: signs, symptoms and causes

Hoarseness is most often a symptom of viral vocal corditis, but it can also be an important symptom of neuropathy. Hoarseness should be explained in the full clinical picture

Horner's syndrome: signs, symptoms and causes

Horner's syndrome can be caused by brain stem stroke, lung cancer, thyroid cancer, or trauma to the neck, chest, spina bifida, subclavian or carotid artery, complex migraine, or fracture skull

Photophobia: signs, symptoms, and causes

Photophobia is a symptom of meningeal irritation, but it is also associated with a number of other nerve and eye disorders. Photophobia occurs in more than 80% of patients with migraines.

Relative Afferent Pupillary Defect (RAPD) (Marcus Gunn pupils)

RAPD caused by input to the Edinger-Westphal nucleus is asymmetrical due to the afferent optic band structure. Symmetrical disorders do not cause the pupillary afferent reflex

Romberg test: signs, symptoms and causes

Three things are needed to maintain standing stability: visual information, vestibular function, and somatosensory perception. Note that most patients with cerebellar lesions are unable to maintain balance despite visual cues

Vertical gaze palsy: signs, symptoms, and causes

Vertical gaze palsy is a sign of midbrain damage. The upward-looking conduction pathway originates from the interstitial nucleus anterior to the medial longitudinal bundle and the posterior complex to distribute to the oculomotor and pulley cords, passing through the posterior margin

Wallenberg syndrome (lateral medullary syndrome)

Infarction in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) may cause dysfunction of the nuclei of the brain stem in the lateral spinal column. Caused by infarction of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) or vertebral artery insufficiency

Amblyopia: signs, symptoms and causes

Vision is an important sign of the eye. Visual acuity was measured using the Snellen table. Patients with refractive errors use glasses or use concave refractors during the examination to compensate for the refractive error

Chvostek's sign: signs, symptoms, and causes

There is little value in examining a positive Chvostek sign. However, it is still accepted as a marker in hypocalcemia and neuromuscular hyperexcitability

Leaky milk: signs, symptoms and causes

Normally, prolactin stimulates the development of breasts and milk glands, and (together with oxytocin) stimulates lactation in the postpartum period. In addition, estrogen and progesterone are also needed for breast development.

Goiter: signs, symptoms, and causes

TSH stimulation by thyroid cells induces cell hyperplasia secondary to a decrease in thyroid hormone levels by disturbances with thyroid hormone production and secretion