Loss of sensation: symptoms and causes

2021-01-26 12:00 AM

Modes or forms of sensory loss and anatomical segmentation are important when considering the causes of loss of sensation.

Description

Loss of sensation manifests itself by influencing various sensory types (eg pain, temperature, shallow palpation, vibration, ontological sensation) and anatomical regions.

Loss of sensation: symptoms and causes

Loss of feeling in the face and hands

Figure. Loss of feeling in the face and hands. Middle brain artery infarction (MCA); Tumor, sensory cortex.

Loss of leg sensation

Figure. Loss of leg sensation. Pathology of the lateral lumbar spine; tumor, sensory cortex; 

anterior cerebral artery infarction (ACA); lesions of the same spinal cord below T1, above L1 / L2.

Loss of feeling in the hands and feet

Figure. Loss of feeling in the hands and feet. Damage to the hippocampus; damage to the anterior inner bundle; 

internal carotid artery infarction (ICA = MCA + ACA).

Loss of feeling on the side, arms and legs on the opposite side

Figure. Loss of feeling on the side + arms and legs on the opposite side. Lateral brain syndrome

(Wallenberg Syndrome).

Loss of sensation of pain and temperature

Figure. Loss of sensation of pain and temperature 2 robe-style arms. 

Central myelopathy, cervical marrow disease.

Loss of feeling in the lower extremities, neck marrow injury.

Figure. Loss of feeling in the lower extremities. Neck marrow injury.

Loss of sensation in the lower extremities

Figure. Loss of sensation in the lower extremities. Bone marrow injury is less than T1, above L1 / L2.

Loss of sensation according to peripheral nerve division

Figure. Loss of sensation according to peripheral nerve division. Single peripheral nerve compression pathology.

Loss of sense of partition-style socks and gloves

Figure. Loss of sense of partition-style socks and gloves. Length-dependent peripheral neuropathy.

 Loss of sense of zoning

Figure. Loss of sense of zoning. Root pathology.

Shallow, vibration, and substance touch.

The feeling of shallow, vibration, and ontological touch is transmitted mainly through the posterior bundle.

Pain and temperature sensation

Pain and temperature are transmitted by the thalamus.

Causes

Common

Single-nerve pinched pathology (eg. Carpal tunnel syndrome).

Peripheral neuropathy (eg. Diabetic neurological complications).

Brain infarction.

Brain hemorrhage.

Damage to the marrow.

Neuropathy.

Less common

Transverse myelitis.

Side cerebral paralysis syndrome (Wallenberg's syndrome).

Compartment syndrome.

Spinal hollow disease.

Blocks (eg. U, abscess).

Mechanism

Causes of loss of sensation include:

Sensory cortex damage.

Damage to the anterior branch of the inner sac.

Hippocampus injury.

Brain stem damage.

Spinal cord injury.

Root pathology.

Peripheral neuropathy.

Sensory cortex damage

Unilateral sensory cortex lesions cause loss of opposing hemiplegia by the distribution of body structures on the sensory projection area. Solitary post-center lesions may cause more loss of sensation than the loss of movement.

Lesions of the anterior inner bundle

A lesion of the anterior inner limb causes a loss of purely opposing half sensation in the face, arms, and legs due to the dense distribution of sensory fibers in these regions. Muscle weakness can coexist if involved in the posterior branches of the inner sac. The most common cause is a flawed stroke.

Hippocampus injury

The most common cause of hypersensitivity to purely hypersensitivity without loss of movement is a thalamus infarction. Causes of damage to the thalamus include defect infarction, brain hemorrhage, and tumor.

Body injury

Brain stem damage is characterized by impaired sensory movement coordination and/or just movement. Nuclear dysfunction of the cerebral nerve causes distal cranial nerve abnormalities. Dysfunction of long bundles (eg pyramidal bundle, posterior bundle, thalamus thorn bundle) causes reciprocal motor sensory abnormalities underneath the lesion. The first described brain stem syndrome with cross-sensory damage is Wallenberg's syndrome.

Spinal cord injury

Spinal cord lesions cause loss of sensation of shallow palpation, tremor, ontological side because the conduction pathways in the posterior column overlap in the medulla oblongata (above the lesion). Loss of lateral pain and heat sensation because bundles of the thalamus overlap at each level of the spinal cord (below the lesion). There will be a narrowing of complete loss of sensation at the level of the injury. A layer of sensory impairment (disruption of sensation below a certain level of zoning) is characteristic.

Root pathology

Nerve root disorders that cause feelings of positive (e.g. pain) and negative (e.g., reduced sensation, anesthesia) are typically found in the dominant nerve root regions (sensory ringing). skin). Sensory abnormalities often precede motor abnormalities. The most common cause is disc disease and spondylosis.

Peripheral neuropathy

The most common mechanisms of peripheral neuropathy are 1) length-dependent peripheral neuropathy and 2) single-nerve compression disease.

Length-dependent peripheral neuropathy

Length-dependent peripheral neuropathy is caused by degeneration of axons especially in the distal part of the nerve and progression towards the cell stem. Causes of length-dependent peripheral neuropathy include diabetes, alcohol, and hereditary neuropathy.

Single-nerve pinched pathology

Peripheral nerve compression caused by mechanical damage leads to degeneration of axons and distant myelin (Wallerian Degeneration). Motor and sensory defects in the region dominated by the peripheral nerves are characteristic signs.

Peripheral nerves are sensitive or pinched or traumatized (eg median nerve, general fibroid).

Meaning

Modes or forms of sensory loss and anatomical segmentation are important when considering the causes of loss of sensation.

Related articles:

Why have I lost sensation?

Peripheral neuropathy

Numbness

loss of sensation on skin; loss of sensation on tongue; loss of sensation on face; loss of sensation on fingertips; loss of sensation on thigh; loss of sensation on big toe; loss of sensation on scalp; loss of sensation on lateral thigh; loss of sensation above knee; loss of feeling above knee; loss of sensation medical term; loss of sensation in fingertips; loss of sensation after penile implant; loss of sensation during sex; loss of sensation in feet; loss of sensation in legs; loss of sensation icd 10; loss of sensation covid; loss of sensation after birth; loss of sensation and voluntary muscle movements; what is loss of sensation; what is loss of sensation called; is loss of temperature sensation; what can cause loss of sensation; what is decreased sensation; can stress cause loss of sensation; what loss feels like; can anxiety cause loss of sensation; can depression cause loss of sensation; can covid cause loss of sensation