Retinopathy caused by increased blood pressure and silver wire and copper wire signs

2021-03-16 12:00 AM

Associated with the abnormal colour of the arterioles as seen through fundoscopy. In the copper wire, the arterioles are reddish-brown, in the silver wires, the arterioles are grey

Retinopathy caused by increased blood pressure

Are associated with the pathological changes seen in retinal blood vessels due to (or as an indicator of) increased blood pressure. Several signs are also used as indicators of the severity of high blood pressure.

There has been a renewed interest in retinopathy due to hypertension as a marker, prognosis and risk factor for the disease.

Retinopathy caused by mild and moderate hypertension increases the risk of high blood pressure 1-2 times.

Retinopathy caused by mild and moderate hypertension increases the risk of stroke 1-8 times.

Retinopathy caused by mild hypertension increases the risk of coronary artery disease by 2-3 times.

Retinopathy caused by moderate hypertension increases the risk of cognitive decline.

Silver wire and copper wire signs

Description

Associated with the abnormal colour of the arterioles as seen through fundoscopy. In the copper wire, the arterioles are reddish-brown, in the silver wires, the arterioles are grey.

Causes

Hypertension.

Mechanism

The change in the normal light reflection of the retinal arteries is responsible for both discolourations.

In the copper wire, plaque and hyalinization spread throughout the arterioles, further thickening it. As thickness persists, light reflection becomes dispersed and retinal arterioles become reddish-brown in colour.

In the silver wire, the thicker the plaque increases the optical density of the vessel wall, making it appear as if it has been wrapped. If the whole circuit were to be wrapped, it would look like silver wire.