Testicular atrophy: symptoms and causes

2021-03-16 12:00 AM

A large dilated retinal arteriole crosses a vein and can constrict it and cause oedema at the distant crossroads. The veins will look like an hourglass on each side where they cross.

Retinopathy caused by increased blood pressure

Are associated with the pathological changes seen in retinal blood vessels due to (or as an indicator of) increased blood pressure. Several signs are also used as indicators of the severity of high blood pressure.

There has been a renewed interest in retinopathy due to hypertension as a marker, prognosis and risk factor for the disease.

Retinopathy caused by mild and moderate hypertension increases the risk of high blood pressure 1-2 times.

Retinopathy caused by mild and moderate hypertension increases the risk of stroke 1-8 times.

Retinopathy caused by mild hypertension increases the risk of coronary artery disease by 2-3 times.

Retinopathy caused by moderate hypertension increases the risk of cognitive decline.

Intravenous artery crossing

Description

A large dilated retinal arteriole crosses a vein and can constrict it and cause oedema at the distant crossroads. The veins will look like an hourglass on each side where they cross.

Figure. The venous artery crossed

Reason

Hypertension.

Mechanism

Prolonged hypertension increases mesenchymal hyperplasia and endothelial thickening. The large dilated artery touches the underlying vein, giving it a trapped appearance.