Updated handbook of diagnosis and treatment of pathology

Officially updated recommendations and guidelines, for clinical judgment, as well as in the identification and implementation of preventive measures, diagnostics, or therapeutic health strategies.

Shock: diagnosis and treatment updates

Distributive shock is caused by excessive vasodilation and impaired blood flow distribution. Septic shock is the most common form of distributive shock and is characterized by significant mortality.

Seizures: diagnosis and treatment updates

It is important to distinguish a seizure from a "false seizure" (eg, hysteria or quadriplegia) in which altered consciousness may be present but not lost.

Status epilepticus: diagnosis and treatment updates

Status epilepticus may represent an exacerbation of a pre-existing seizure disorder, the initial manifestation of a seizure disorder, or emotion other than a seizure disorder.

Fever: diagnosis and treatment update

When someone has a fever, the signs and symptoms are related to what are called disease characteristics. In a fever patient, look for signs of serious illness first, then try to identify the diagnosis.

Pain in adults: diagnostic and therapeutic updates

Oral pain therapy should be used whenever possible. Combinations of different drugs are sufficient (eg, Paracetamol and NSAIDs; Paracetamol and codeine).

Severe acute malnutrition: updating diagnosis and treatment

Children with chronic malnutrition may need more calories. In cases of moderate to severe malnutrition, enteral feeding may be required.

Anaphylaxis in adults: diagnosis and treatment update

The first and foremost treatment in anaphylaxis is epinephrine. There are no absolute contraindications to epinephrine in the treatment of anaphylaxis.

Anaphylaxis in infants and children: diagnosis, treatment

Danger signs such as shortness of breath, wheezing, increased breathing rate, constriction, persistent cough, cyanosis, signs of poor perfusion, abdominal pain, vomiting, arrhythmia, hypotension, depressed.

Acute coronary syndrome: diagnosis and treatment update

Checking immediately when the pain currently exists or prolong, especially within the last 12 hours. Checking if chest pain could be caused by the acute coronary syndrome.

Atrial fibrillation: diagnosis and treatment updates

Most people with symptoms consistent with new-onset atrial fibrillation will not have hemodynamic disturbances, however, urgent referral to intensive care may be necessary to reduce the heart rate.

Bradycardia: diagnosis and treatment updates

The bradycardia that causes symptoms is usually <50/min. Cardiac rhythm should be interpreted in the context of symptoms and drug therapy indicated only when symptomatic, otherwise monitoring and revaluation.

Adult asystole cardiac arrest: diagnosis, treatment updates

Consider the underlying cause of asystole cardiac arrest (electrical activity without impulses). Always, minimize interruption of chest compressions, especially during IV placement.

Asystole cardiac arrest in children: diagnosis and treatment update

If ventilation is not possible, re-establish the airway: assume upper airway obstruction. Use emergency measures for paediatric upper airway obstruction.